Investigation of PTM crosstalk between two different types


In recent years, an increasing evidence for crosstalk between PTMs has been reported. Although mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has substantially improved our knowledge about substrate site specificity of single PTM, this neglects the fact that the crosstalk of combinatorial PTMs may act in concert in the regulation of protein function. Due to the relatively limited information about the frequency and functional relevance of PTM crosstalk, in this update, the PTM sites neighbouring with other PTM sites in a specified window length were subjected to motif discovery and functional enrichment analysis. This update confronts the current state of PTM crosstalk research and breaks the bottleneck of how proteomics may contribute to understanding PTM codes, revealing the next level of data complexity and proteomic limitation in prospective PTM research.

Investigation of PTM crosstalk.

#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Amidation---------------
C-linked Glycosylation----------------------
Carbamidation-------------------
Carboxylation--------------------
Citrullination--
Crosslink
Crotonylation
Formylation
GPI-anchor----------------------
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid----------------------
Glutarylation
Glutathionylation
Hydroxylation
Lipoylation--------------------
Malonylation
Methylation
Myristate---------------
N-linked Glycosylation
Nitration--------
O-linked Glycosylation
Oxidation--
Palmitoylation------
Phosphorylation
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid-------------------
S-diacylglycerol----------------------
S-nitrosylation
Succinylation
Sulfation-----------------
Sumoylation
Ubiquitination
#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Acetylation
Amidation--------------------
C-linked Glycosylation----------------------
Carbamidation--------------------
Carboxylation----------------------
Citrullination-------
Crosslink
Crotonylation-
Formylation-----------------
GPI-anchor----------------------
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid----------------------
Glutarylation----------------
Glutathionylation
Hydroxylation
Lipoylation----------------------
Malonylation
Myristate--------------------
N-linked Glycosylation----------------
Nitration----------------------
O-linked Glycosylation-
Oxidation----------------
Palmitoylation--------------
Phosphorylation
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid------------------
S-diacylglycerol----------------------
S-nitrosylation
Succinylation
Sulfation----------------------
Sumoylation
Ubiquitination
#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Acetylation
Amidation--------------------
C-linked Glycosylation----------------------
Carbamidation----------------------
Carboxylation----------------------
Citrullination----------------------
Crotonylation----------------------
Formylation----------------------
GPI-anchor------------------
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid----------------------
Glutarylation----------------------
Glutathionylation------------------
Hydroxylation--------------------
Lipoylation----------------------
Malonylation--------------------
Methylation----------------
Myristate----------------------
N-linked Glycosylation----------------------
Nitration----------------------
O-linked Glycosylation----
Oxidation----------------------
Palmitoylation----------------------
Phosphorylation
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid------------------
S-diacylglycerol----------------------
S-nitrosylation------------------
Succinylation-----------------
Sulfation----------------
Sumoylation----------------------
Ubiquitination
#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Acetylation
Amidation--------------
C-linked Glycosylation-------------------
Carbamidation----------------------
Carboxylation----------------------
Citrullination----------------------
Crosslink
Crotonylation----------------------
Formylation----------------------
GPI-anchor-----------------
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid----------------------
Glutarylation------------------
Glutathionylation------------
Hydroxylation
Lipoylation----------------------
Malonylation-------------
Methylation--
Myristate----------------------
N-linked Glycosylation----
Nitration----------------------
Oxidation--------------------
Palmitoylation----------------------
Phosphorylation
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid----------------
S-diacylglycerol----------------------
S-nitrosylation---------
Succinylation-----------
Sulfation--------------
Sumoylation----------------------
Ubiquitination
#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Acetylation
Amidation----------
C-linked Glycosylation------------------
Carbamidation
Carboxylation----------------------
Citrullination
Crosslink
Crotonylation-
Formylation----------------------
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid--------------
Glutarylation
Glutathionylation
GPI-anchor--------------------
Hydroxylation-
Lipoylation--------------------
Malonylation
Methylation
Myristate-----------
N-linked Glycosylation
Nitration------
O-linked Glycosylation
Oxidation-
Palmitoylation-
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid-----------
S-diacylglycerol----------------------
S-nitrosylation
Succinylation
Sulfation-
Sumoylation
Ubiquitination
#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Amidation----------------------
Carbamidation----------------------
Carboxylation----------------------
Citrullination----------------------
Crotonylation----------------------
Formylation--------------------
GPI-anchor----------------------
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid----------------------
Glutarylation--
Glutathionylation
Hydroxylation--------------------
Lipoylation----------------------
Malonylation-
Methylation
Myristate--------------------
Nitration------------------
Oxidation-------------------
Palmitoylation----------------
Phosphorylation
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid--------------------
S-diacylglycerol----------------------
Succinylation-
Sulfation-------------------
Sumoylation----------------------
#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Acetylation
Amidation----------------------
C-linked Glycosylation----------------------
Carbamidation----------------------
Carboxylation----------------------
Citrullination--------------
Crosslink
Crotonylation----------
Formylation
GPI-anchor----------------------
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid----------------------
Glutarylation
Glutathionylation-
Hydroxylation------
Lipoylation----------------------
Malonylation
Methylation
Myristate----------------------
N-linked Glycosylation-----------------
Nitration------------------
O-linked Glycosylation-----------
Oxidation---------------
Palmitoylation-------------------
Phosphorylation
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid----------------------
S-diacylglycerol----------------------
S-nitrosylation-
Sulfation------------------
Sumoylation-
Ubiquitination
#, Number of PTM crosstalk proteins
PTM Type#-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1012345678910
Acetylation
Amidation----------------------
Crosslink
Glutathionylation
Hydroxylation--------
Malonylation
Methylation
O-linked Glycosylation
Phosphorylation
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid--------------------
S-nitrosylation
Succinylation
Sumoylation

TOP