Basic Information | Overview of PTM Sites | Experimental PTM Sites | Protein-Protein Interactions | Drug and Disease Associations | Related Literatures
Basic Information
Protein Name :  Angiotensin-converting enzyme  

UniProtKB / Swiss-Prot ID :  ACE_HUMAN

Gene Name (Synonyms) : 
ACE, DCP, DCP1  

Species :  Homo sapiens (Human). 

Subcellular Localization :  Angiotensin-converting enzyme, soluble form: Secreted. Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. 

Protein Function :  Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety. 

Transmembrane Topology (topPTM) : ACE_HUMAN 

Protein Sequence MGAASGRRGPGLLLPLPLLLLLPPQPALALDPGLQPGNFSADEAGAQLFAQSYNSSAEQVLFQSVAASWA...
Predicted Secondary Structure CCCCCCCCCCCCHHHHHHHHHCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH...
Protein Variant
LocationDescription
154A -> T (in dbSNP:rs13306087). VAR_029139
183A -> T (in dbSNP:rs12720754). VAR_029140
244Y -> C (in dbSNP:rs3730025). VAR_023430
260R -> C (in dbSNP:rs4302). VAR_054000
260R -> L (in dbSNP:rs4303). VAR_054001
261A -> S (in dbSNP:rs4303). VAR_011707
351P -> L (in dbSNP:rs2229839). VAR_023431
354G -> R (in dbSNP:rs56394458). VAR_035434
379R -> Q (in dbSNP:rs13306085). VAR_029141
524V -> A (in dbSNP:rs12720746). VAR_029142
561R -> W (in dbSNP:rs4314). VAR_011708
592D -> G (in dbSNP:rs12709426). VAR_020053
828M -> T (in dbSNP:rs13306091). VAR_034602
916T -> M (in dbSNP:rs3730043). VAR_023432
1018I -> T (in dbSNP:rs4976). VAR_014189
1051F -> V (in dbSNP:rs4977). VAR_014190
1187T -> M (in dbSNP:rs12709442). VAR_023433
1228P -> L (no effect on activity; increasessecretion; rate of solubilization is 2.5-
1279R -> Q (in dbSNP:rs4980). VAR_014191
1286R -> S (in dbSNP:rs4364). VAR_011709
1296Q -> P (in dbSNP:rs4981). VAR_014192
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Overview of Protein Modification Sites with Functional and Structural Information
Accessible Surface Area (ASA)
Pred. Secondary
Real Secondary
Disorder Prediction
Protein Domain
&
Experimental PTM Sites
Predicted PTM Sites
Protein Variant
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Experimental Post-Translational Modification Sites Download
Locations
Modification
Substrate Sites
&
Secondary Structure
Accessible Surface Area (%)
Resource
Reference
Structural Characterization
Orthologous
Protein Cluster
54N-linked (GlcNAc...).AQSYNSSAE
HHHHHHHHH
34.43UniProtKB
Link
74N-linked (GlcNAc...).AHDTNITAE
HCCCCCCHH
35.35UniProtKB
Link
111N-linked (GlcNAc...).PIWQNFTDP
HHHHHCCCH
27.13UniProtKB
Link
146N-linked (GlcNAc...).ALLSNMSRI
HHHHHHHHH
32.20UniProtKB
Link
318N-linked (GlcNAc...).QQGWNATHM
HCCCCHHHH
41.61UniProtKB
Link
445N-linked (GlcNAc...).DRVTNDTES
CCCCCCCHH
51.88UniProtKB
Link
509N-linked (GlcNAc...).PVTRNETHF
CCCCCCCCC
49.50UniProtKB
Link
658noneEEYDRTSQV
HHHHHHHHH
35.06HPRD
Link-
695N-linked (GlcNAc...) (complex).MQIANHTLK
HHHHHHHHH
30.24UniProtKB
Link-
714N-linked (GlcNAc...) (complex).NQLQNTTIK
HHCCCHHHH
48.02UniProtKB
Link-
716PhosphothreonineLQNTTIKRI
CCCHHHHHH
31.86HPRD
Link-
716Phosphothreonine.LQNTTIKRI
CCCHHHHHH
31.86UniProtKB
Link-
718Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)NTTIKRIIK
CHHHHHHHH
35.14Phosphositeplus
Link-
760N-linked (GlcNAc...); partial.VCHPNGSCL
EECCCCCCC
31.20UniProtKB
Link-
942N-linked (GlcNAc...); partial.PEFWNKSML
HHHHCCCCC
31.67UniProtKB
Link-
1166noneEAGQRLATA
HHHHHHHHH
25.93HPRD
Link-
1191N-linked (GlcNAc...); partial.TGQPNMSAS
CCCCCCCHH
29.20UniProtKB
Link-
1232nonePNSARSEGP
CCCCCCCCC
34.75HPRD
Link-
1299PhosphoserinePQFGSEVEL
CCCCCCCCC
39.49PhosphoELM
Link-
1299PhosphoserinePQFGSEVEL
CCCCCCCCC
39.49Phosphositeplus
Link-
1299Phosphoserine.PQFGSEVEL
CCCCCCCCC
39.49UniProtKB
Link-
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Protein-Protein Interactions
      Interacting Protein      
Interaction type
Source ID
      Resource      
      Pubmed ID      
Domain-Domain Interactions
LSM8_HUMANENSP00000290866STRING
DCPS_HUMANENSP00000290866STRING
AGTR1_HUMANENSP00000290866STRING
NOS3_HUMANENSP00000290866STRING
FOS_HUMANENSP00000290866STRING
BKRB2_HUMANENSP00000290866STRING
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Disease Reference
Kegg disease
H00083 Allograft rejection
H00575 Renal tubular dysgenesis
OMIM disease
601367Ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR)
267430Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD)
612624Microvascular complications of diabetes 3 (MVCD3)
614519Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)
Drug Reference
Kegg drug
D00251 Captopril (JP16/USP/INN); Apopril (TN); Capoten (TN)
D00362 Lisinopril hydrate (JP16); Lisinopril (USP); Lisinopril dihydrate; Prinivil (TN); Zestril (TN)
D00383 Trandolapril (JAN/INN); Mavik (TN)
D00421 Ramipril (USP/INN); Altace (TN)
D00459 Quinapril hydrochloride (JP16/USP); Accupril (TN)
D00620 Benazepril hydrochloride (JAN/USAN); Lotensin (TN)
D00621 Enalapril maleate (JP16/USP); Renivace (TN); Vasotec (TN)
D00622 Fosinopril sodium (USAN); Monopril (TN)
D00623 Moexipril hydrochloride (USAN); Univasc (TN)
D00624 Perindopril erbumine (JAN/USAN); Aceon (TN)
D01069 Cilazapril hydrate (JP16); Cilazapril (USAN); Inhibace (TN)
D01119 Temocapril hydrochloride (JP16/USAN); Acecol (TN)
D01549 Imidapril hydrochloride (JP16); Tanatril (TN)
D01667 Delapril hydrochloride (JAN/USAN); Adecut (TN)
D01900 Alacepril (JP16/INN); Cetapril (TN)
D03077 Benazeprilat (USAN/INN)
D03440 Ceronapril (USAN/INN)
D03752 Quinapril (USP/INN)
D03753 Perindopril (USAN/INN)
D03756 Indolapril hydrochloride (USAN)
D03758 Libenzapril (USAN/INN)
D03760 Pentopril (USAN/INN)
D03763 Pivopril (USAN/INN)
D03765 Spirapril hydrochloride (USAN); Renormax (TN)
D03767 Zofenopril calcium (USAN); Zoprace (TN)
D03769 Enalaprilat (USP); Vasotec (TN)
D03772 Fosinoprilat (USAN/INN)
D03773 Quinaprilat (USAN/INN)
D03775 Spiraprilat (USAN/INN)
D03776 Zofenoprilat arginine (USAN)
D06076 Teprotide (USAN/INN)
D07499 Benazepril (INN); Benazepril Sandoz (TN); Forteekor [veterinary] (TN)
D07699 Cilazapril (INN); Inhibace (TN)
D07781 Delapril (INN); Delaket (TN)
D07892 Enalapril (INN); Enalapril (TN)
D07992 Fosinopril (INN); Monopril (TN)
D08068 Imidapril (INN); Hipertene (TN)
D08131 Lisinopril (INN); Zestril (TN)
D08225 Moexipril (INN)
D08529 Spirapril (INN)
D08566 Temocapril (INN)
D08688 Zofenopril (INN); Zofenil (TN)
There are no disease associations of PTM sites.
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Related Literatures of Post-Translational Modification
N-linked Glycosylation
ReferencePubMed
"Identification of N-linked glycosylation sites in human testisangiotensin-converting enzyme and expression of an activedeglycosylated form.";
Yu X.C., Sturrock E.D., Wu Z., Biemann K., Ehlers M.R.W.,Riordan J.F.;
J. Biol. Chem. 272:3511-3519(1997).
Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION AT ASN-38; ASN-54; ASN-111; ASN-146; ASN-509; ASN-695;ASN-714; ASN-760; ASN-942 AND ASN-1191, AND MASS SPECTROMETRY.
"Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction,hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry.";
Liu T., Qian W.-J., Gritsenko M.A., Camp D.G. II, Monroe M.E.,Moore R.J., Smith R.D.;
J. Proteome Res. 4:2070-2080(2005).
Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ASN-509; ASN-695 AND ASN-714,AND MASS SPECTROMETRY.
"Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination ofmultiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry.";
Chen R., Jiang X., Sun D., Han G., Wang F., Ye M., Wang L., Zou H.;
J. Proteome Res. 8:651-661(2009).
Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ASN-111; ASN-445 AND ASN-714,AND MASS SPECTROMETRY.
"Crystal structure of the N domain of human somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme provides a structural basis for domain-specificinhibitor design.";
Corradi H.R., Schwager S.L.U., Nchinda A.T., Sturrock E.D.,Acharya K.R.;
J. Mol. Biol. 357:964-974(2006).
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (3.0 ANGSTROMS) OF 30-641 IN COMPLEX WITHLISINOPRIL; ZINC AND CHLORIDE IONS, AND GLYCOSYLATION AT ASN-54;ASN-74; ASN-146; ASN-318 AND ASN-509.
Phosphorylation
ReferencePubMed
"CK2 phosphorylates the angiotensin-converting enzyme and regulatesits retention in the endothelial cell plasma membrane.";
Kohlstedt K., Shoghi F., Mueller-Esterl W., Busse R., Fleming I.;
Circ. Res. 91:749-756(2002).
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION AT SER-1299, AND MUTAGENESIS OF SER-1299.
"Improved titanium dioxide enrichment of phosphopeptides from HeLacells and high confident phosphopeptide identification by cross-validation of MS/MS and MS/MS/MS spectra.";
Yu L.-R., Zhu Z., Chan K.C., Issaq H.J., Dimitrov D.S., Veenstra T.D.;
J. Proteome Res. 6:4150-4162(2007).
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT THR-716, AND MASSSPECTROMETRY.
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Basic Information | Overview of PTM Sites | Experimental PTM Sites | Protein-Protein Interactions | Drug and Disease Associations | Related Literatures